Normally, when you boot to a Linux system, the kernel starts executing. Fromthen on, kernel execution is event driven, and the kernel doesn't standaround idle. Its startup time is large because it has to communicate witheverything; for example, most network cards wait for the network to beup before they can activate, and even on systems with just a smallamount of memory, the kernel has to initialize and load the memory,perform an initial boot-time test, and load drivers for most hardwaredevices specific to the system, including SCSI hardware and networkdevices.
On systems that support it, booting to the Linux kernel can take less thana minute, and the kernel can be removed once booted to a Graphical UserInterface (GUI). Recent Linux kernels can be booted with just a /boot partition.
In the boot loader, Linux has two stages: the boot loader (GRUB) is theprogram that loads the kernel and provides a menu where the user canselect the OS to be started. This menu traditionally appeared on monitorsof the PC's parallel port, but modern systems support several other waysto display a boot loader menu, such as video card consoles andUSB-boot. Also, there exists a device called a BIOS replacement,which provides a more extensive menu that includes an option to boot thecomputer to a dedicated serial port. Some BIOSes provide more extensiveoptions and allow more complex booting of the boot loader.
On non-PPC systems, the BIOS traditionally provides standard operationonce the boot loader is loaded, and is called the ROM BIOS, for exampleon IBM PC compatible systems or on PPC systems (e.g. PowerPC systems --including Mac systems).
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