Since the original Global Burden of Disease study in 1990 , there has been no comprehensive global assessment of liver cirrhosis mortality. This is now possible, and timely, due to advances made by the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study (GBD 2010). First, an extensive database on mortality by cause for the years 1980 to 2010 has been collated, critically appraised and synthesized ,-. Second, advanced statistical methods for cause of death estimation, particularly in populations with incomplete vital registration and certification of deaths, have been developed . Third, major advances with low-cost and high computational power computer equipment have facilitated objective assessments of model performance with out-of-sample predictive validity. Fourth, as part of the GBD 2010 process, a community of experts in the epidemiology of the disease has critically appraised the methods and results. In this paper, we present the key findings on liver cirrhosis mortality from the GBD 2010 study. For the first time, we provide estimates of annual age- and sex-specific liver cirrhosis mortality rates, with uncertainty, for 187 countries between 1980 and 2010.
We estimated mortality levels and uncertainty intervals using cause of death ensemble modeling (CODEm) developed for cause of death estimation for the GBD 2010 study. A more detailed explanation of CODEm can be found elsewhere . In brief, a large number of statistical models are created using combinations of selected covariates independently associated with the disease based on the literature. Plausible models then compete and are assessed by means of out-of-sample performance metrics.
We modeled all possible combinations of covariates and retained those combinations where the sign on the coefficients was in the expected direction, based on the literature, and if the coefficients were statistically significant (P-value
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(d) An employer's tort liability for potential fetal injuries and its increased costs due to fertile women in the workplace do not require a different result. If, under general tort principles, Title VII bans sex-specific fetal-protection policies, the employer fully informs the woman of the risk, and the employer has not acted negligently, the basis for holding an employer liable seems remote, at best. Moreover, the incremental cost of employing members of one sex cannot justify a discriminatory refusal to hire members of that gender. See, e.g., Los Angeles Dept. of Water & Power v. Manhart, 435 U. S. 702, 435 U. S. 716-718, and n. 32. Pp. 499 U. S. 208-211.
43 Fed.Reg. 52952, 52966 (1978). See also id. at 54354, 54398. Instead, OSHA established a series of mandatory protections which, taken together, "should effectively minimize any risk to the fetus and newborn child." Id. at 52966. See 29 CFR § 1910.125(k)(ii) (1989). Without negligence, it would be difficult for a court to find liability on the part of the employer. If, under general tort principles, Title VII bans sex-specific fetal-protection policies, the employer fully informs the woman of the risk, and the employer has not acted negligently, the basis for holding an employer liable seems remote, at best.
"Title VII bans sex-specific fetal-protection policies, the employer fully informs the woman of the risk, and the employer has not acted negligently, the basis for holding an employer liable seems remote, at best."
"[w]hen an employer establishes that a job qualification has been carefully formulated to respond to documented concerns for public safety, it will not be overly burdensome to persuade a trier of fact that the qualification is 'reasonably necessary' to safe operation of the business." 2b1af7f3a8