This book shows that reading-writing is a two-way street that is burgeoning with research activity. It provides a comprehensive and updated view on reading-writing connections by drawing on extant research and findings. It puts forward a new conception of literacy, one that establishes reading and writing connections as the primeval ground for building literacy science. It shows how an integrative view of literacy can have deep and lasting effects on conceptualizing literacy development in several orthographies and on improving literacy instruction and remediation worldwide. The book examines in detail such issues as modeling approaches to reading-writing relations, literacy development, reading and spelling across orthographies and integrative approaches to literacy instruction and remediation.
3. Reading-Writing Plus is a powerful subscription-based collection of digital resources for your college reading or college readiness program. Drawing from the acclaimed pedagogy of our Ten Steps Series, Reading-Writing Plus is a digital suite of exercises, mastery tests, assessments, and instructional videos; a Skills Bank; a Readings Bank; and eBooks* of both of our combined reading-writing texts along with more than 100 Townsend Library titles. Note:Students must have a paid subscription to access Reading-Writing Plus materials. Click here to learn more about subscription options, including discounted digital/textbook bundles, or download a brochure here.
Decisions about English as a second language (ESL) writing class activities are aimed at providing a language environment in which the ESL writer can begin to construct text that is clearly recognizable as written English. Teachers wrestle with the usefulness of classroom work focusing on, for example, transition words, sentence structure, paragraph development, or rhetorical patterns. It is understandable, then, that many of the questions that shape ESL writing classroom practices center on the issue of what constitutes the relevant language input from which second language learners construct their hypotheses about second language (L2) written text. Traditionally the answer has been reading.
BONUS: Teach the syntax of our language. Understanding syntax, after background knowledge, is has the highest correlation with reading comprehension for fluent readers. Plus, learning the functions of the parts of speech, phrases, and clauses at the sentence level aids the development of sophisticated writing.
All reading and writing genres serve their own purposes, follow their own rules, and have their own unique characteristics. Knowing the text structure of each genre helps readers predict and analyze what the author will say and has said. For example, because a reader understands the format and rules of a persuasive essay, the reader knows to look for the thesis in the introduction, knows to look for the evidence that backs up the topic sentence in each body paragraph, and knows to look for the specific strategies that are utilized in the conclusion paragraphs. Writing form is an important component of rhetorical stance. Knowing each genre (domain) also helps writers include the most appropriate support details and evidence. For example, persuasive essays often use a counterpoint argument as evidence.
Readers recognize main idea, anticipate plot development or line of argumentation, make inferences, and draw conclusions based upon the structural characteristics of the reading genre. For example, readers expect the headline and introductory paragraph(s) of a newspaper article to follow the structural characteristics of that genre. For example, since news articles include Who, What, Where, When, and How at the beginning, the informed reader knows to look for these components. Similarly, writers apply their knowledge of specific structural characteristics for each writing genre. For example, knowing the characteristics of these plot elements: problem, conflict; rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution will help the writer craft a complete narrative.
Both reading and writing is interpretive. Readers infer meaning, make interpretations, or draw logical conclusions from textual clues provided by the author. Writers imply, or suggest, rather than overtly state certain ideas or actions to build interest, create intentional ambiguity, develop suspense, or re-direct the reader.
The Science of Reading Intervention Program: Word Recognition includes explicit, scripted instruction and practice with the 5 Daily Google Slide Activities every reading intervention student needs: 1. Phonemic Awareness and Morphology 2. Blending, Segmenting, and Spelling 3. Sounds and Spellings (including handwriting) 4. Heart Words Practice 5. Sam and Friends Phonics Books (decodables). Plus, digital and printable sound wall cards and speech articulation songs. Print versions are available for all activities. First Half of the Year Program (55 minutes-per-day, 18 weeks)
Research on cross-linguistic comparisons of the neural correlates of reading has consistently found that the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) is more involved in Chinese than in English. However, there is a lack of consensus on the interpretation of the language difference. Because this region has been found to be involved in writing, we hypothesize that reading Chinese characters involves this writing region to a greater degree because Chinese speakers learn to read by repeatedly writing the characters. To test this hypothesis, we recruited English L1 learners of Chinese, who performed a reading task and a writing task in each language. The English L1 sample had learned some Chinese characters through character-writing and others through phonological learning, allowing a test of writing-on-reading effect. We found that the left MFG was more activated in Chinese than English regardless of task, and more activated in writing than in reading regardless of language. Furthermore, we found that this region was more activated for reading Chinese characters learned by character-writing than those learned by phonological learning. A major conclusion is that writing regions are also activated in reading, and that this reading-writing connection is modulated by the learning experience. We replicated the main findings in a group of native Chinese speakers, which excluded the possibility that the language differences observed in the English L1 participants were due to different language proficiency level.
How the reading brain accommodates the variety of languages and writing systems is an interesting question, given the relatively recent addition of literacy as a human skill, which sets it outside the more universal neural bases of sensory, perceptual, and language systems. To the extent that all reading depends on the connection of visual input with language areas, some universality is to be expected  and indeed has been found in the intersection of reading and language areas in cross-language imaging research [2,3]. This intersection of spoken and written language areas recently has been confirmed across four-languages, including Chinese . However, within the larger picture of universality, variations due to language and writing system are expected and these variations also have been reported. For example, reading in a more transparent language such as Italian or Spanish is associated with greater activation in the temporo-parietal regions involved in grapheme-phoneme-conversion or assembled phonology, whereas reading in English, a deep orthography, is associated with greater activation in a ventral reading pathway (including the inferior temporal gyrus) that might support processes involved in semantically supported word retrieval [5,6].
For Chinese, reading also evoked more activation than writing in bilateral inferior parietal lobule, left STG, MTG, left inferior frontal gyrus and right cuneus, while writing evoked greater activation than reading in left MOG, right ITG, right IFG, MFG and right IPL/SPL. For English, reading also evoked more activation than writing in right IFG, right SFG and right MTG, while writing showed more activation than reading in left STG (Table 2, Fig 2). Regions that showed a significant task effect in only one language may or may not survive in an interaction test of task by language.
The most important findings in this study concern the functionality of the left MFG in reading and writing across Chinese and English. A major conclusion from these results is that the LMFG is activated in both tasks and both languages, but more strongly for writing than reading, and more strongly for Chinese than English. The conjunction analyses imply that cortical areas at or near the LMFG support a motor component of writing that functions during reading when writing has been a part of the reading experience. Thus, during reading, the LMFG is more activated for Chinese than for English, because the acquisition of Chinese literacy involves more hand writing than does English literacy. The finding that the LMFG is more activated during the reading of characters that had been learned through writing, compared with those learned through pinyin, provides direct evidence for our hypothesis. We briefly summarize the key findings that support these conclusions. 153554b96e