Graphicsfile formats differ in the way they represent image data (as pixelsor vectors), and support different compression techniques and Photoshopfeatures. To preserve all Photoshop features (layers, effects, masks,and so on), save a copy of your image in Photoshop format (PSD).
The Large Document Format (PSB) supports documents up to 300,000 pixels in any dimension. All Photoshop features, such as layers, effects, and filters, are supported. (With documents larger than 30,000 pixels in width or height, some plug-in filters are unavailable.)
OpenEXR (EXR) is a file format used by the visual effects industry for HDR images. The film format has high color fidelity and a dynamic range suitable for use in motion picture production. Developed by Industrial Light and Magic, OpenEXR supports multiple lossless or lossy compression methods. An OpenEXR file supports transparency and works only with 32 bits/channel images; the file format stores the values as 16 bits/channel floating point.
A multitrack session file is a small, non-audio file. It merely stores information about locations of related audio files on your hard drive, the duration of each audio file within the session, the envelopes and effects applied to various tracks, and so forth. You can reopen a saved session file later to make further changes to the mix.
After you finish mixing a session, you can export all or part of it in a variety of common formats. (See Audio file formats.) When you export, the resulting file reflects current volume, pan, and effects settings routed to the Mix track.
Sets the audio bit depth. Higher bit depths provide more dynamic range and reduce distortion, though they increase file size and processing time. To determine the proper setting for common output types, see Understanding bit depth.
The cough reflex represents a primary defensive mechanism for airway protection in a variety of mammalian species. However, excessive and inappropriate coughing can emerge as a primary presenting symptom of many airway diseases. Cough disorders are characterized by a reduction in the threshold for reflex initiation and, as a consequence, the occurrence of cough in response to stimuli that are normally innocuous in nature. The current therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cough disorders are only moderately effective. This undoubtedly relates in part to limitations in our understanding of the neural components comprising the cough reflex pathway. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of current concepts relating to the sensory innervation to the mammalian airways, focusing particularly on the sensory receptors that regulate cough. In addition, the review will highlight particular areas and issues relating to cough neurobiology that are creating controversy in the field.
Coughing, although essential for protecting the airways from the possible deleterious effects of acute airway irritation, can become excessive and non-productive in many airways diseases. The recent increased interest in cough reflex sensory neurobiology has unveiled a previously unrecognized complexity in the interacting roles of multiple afferent nerve subtypes in regulating this defensive reflex. However, further careful dissection of the cough sensory pathways is still required for the identification of future therapeutic targets for the effective treatment of cough disorders.
Note to Users: This webpage is an archived version of an earlier, more extensive website. PDF and Excel files from the original site have been made available via .rar files at the bottom of this page. A reproduction of the web pages from the earlier website is available via PDF. The annual time series of estimates of the extent of agricultural price distortions in both advanced and developing economies is now updated every six months by The International Organisations Consortium for Measuring the Policy Environment for Agriculture, which includes the World Bank, and is freely accessible at www.ag-incentives.org.
For each SynthMaster instance, there are 2 layers followed by 2 global effect send busses. The modulators can modulate frequency, phase, amplitude or pulse width of the oscillators or any other modulators at audio rate, or they can be used as regular oscillators. Each layer has its own:
Vegetation has been previously proposed as a method for protecting artificial and natural slopes against shallow landslides (e.g. as may be triggered by an earthquake); however, previous research has concentrated on individual root soil interaction during shear deformation rather than the global slope behaviour due to the extreme expense and difficulty involved in conducting full-scale field tests. Geotechnical centrifuge modelling offers an opportunity to investigate in detail the engineering performance of vegetated slopes, but its application has been restricted due to the lack of availability of suitable root analogues that can repeatably replicate appropriate mechanical properties (stiffness and strength) and realistic 3D geometry. This study employed 3D printing to develop a representative and repeatable 1:10 scale model of a tree root cluster (representing roots up to 1.5 m deep at prototype scale) that can be used within a geotechnical centrifuge to investigate the response of a vegetated slope subject to earthquake ground motion. The printed acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic root model was identified to be highly representative of the geometry and mechanical behaviour (stiffness and strength) of real woody root systems. A programme of large direct shear tests was also performed to evaluate the additional strength provided by the root analogues within soil that is slipping and investigate the influence of various characteristics (including root area ratio (RAR), soil confining effective stress and root morphology) on this reinforcing effect. Our results show that root reinforcement is not only a function of root mechanical properties but also depends on factors including surrounding effective confining stress (resulting in depth dependency even for the same RAR), depth of the slip plane and root morphology. When subject to shear loading in soil, the tap root appeared to structurally transfer load within the root system, including to smaller and deeper roots which subsequently broke or were pulled out. Finally, the root analogues were added to model slopes subjected to earthquake ground motion in the centrifuge, where it was revealed that vegetation can substantially reduce earthquake-induced slope deformation in the soil conditions tested (76% reduction on crest permanent settlement during slippage). Both the realistic 3D geometry and highly simplified root morphologies, as characterised mechanically by the shear tests, were tested in the centrifuge which, despite exhibiting very different levels of additional strength in the shear tests, resulted in very similar responses of the slopes. This suggests that once a certain minimum level of reinforcement has been reached which will alter the deformation mechanism within the slope, further increases of root contribution (e.g. due to differences in root morphology) do not have a large further effect on improving slope stability.
Landslides induced by long and/or intense rainfall or earthquake events have significant effects on lives and infrastructure in many parts of the world (Petley 2012). As an example, in the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, 69,227 lives were lost and 374,643 people injured, with a further 17,923 listed as missing. During this event, tens of thousands of landslides were triggered over a broad area, some of which buried large sections of some towns and blocked transport links and dammed rivers (Dai et al. 2011). It was estimated that the total losses exceeded 80 billion, and the losses from the earthquake-triggered landslides accounted for over a third of the total earthquake losses (Chen et al. 2008).
Many types of traditional geotechnical methods have been used to improve the slope stability and reduce landslides, such as soil nailing, piles and retaining walls. Compared with those traditional methods, vegetation is an effective and more environmental-friendly approach and has been incorporated into engineering practice (Stokes et al. 2014). To investigate the global performance of rooted slopes and verify the contribution of roots to the behaviour of slopes, some trials (e.g. Smethurst et al. 2006; Leung and Ng 2013) have previously been conducted in the field or on 1:1 scaled slope models. An increased occurrence of shallow landslides has been observed after deforestation of natural forested slopes (Preti 2013; Vergani et al. 2014), such as in southeast Alaska where it was reported that the frequency of landslides increased by 3.8 times after a large-scale decline of yellow cedar (Johnson and Wilcock 2002). However, such large trials are expensive and time consuming, and therefore relatively rare, and have not considered earthquakes as a trigger due to the additional time dependency of a large earthquake occurring while the slope is actively instrumented. An alternative approach which has previously been followed has been to collect information on the root properties (e.g. root tensile strength, root architecture, root cohesion) from stable slopes in situ and perform back calculations of slope behaviour employing existing analytical models or computational models (e.g. Danjon et al. 2008; Mao et al. 2014). This approach highly depends on the accuracy of the analytical models or soil constitutive models selected (Wu 2013). While this has indicated some of the characteristics that impact the global performance of rooted slope, there is a limit to the information that can be gathered from only stable slopes. 153554b96e