The racial composition of American cities changed dramatically. Blacks, who numbered around 10 percent of the U.S. population in 1940, grew to about 40 percent by 1960, with their share rising to 53 percent in 1980. The share of non-Hispanic whites fell from 87 percent to 72 percent, and the number of Hispanics increased from 3 percent to 16 percent. The number of non-Hispanic blacks also grew, from 27 percent to 36 percent, and the number of Hispanics grew from 23 percent to 30 percent. While some of these shifts would have occurred even if whites had not fled the cities, it is clear that the white flight played a critical role in shaping the contemporary urban black population. However, the story does not end there. The vast majority of African-Americans in the 2000 census were born in the South. In 1980, the African-American population was largely concentrated in the industrial North and West, and there were relatively few African-Americans living in the South. In 2000, the opposite was true. Overwhelmingly, the African-American population was concentrated in the South, and over half of all blacks lived there.
Problem of identification of materials for manufacture of thermoset composites (TPCC) from biomass wastes, in particular, wastes of agricultural and forestry origin, is considered. The method of determining the amount of substances such as phenol, formaldehyde and triazine used for preparing the above-mentioned materials, in which the use of high pressure and temperature is avoided, is proposed. The proposed method consists in the measurement of the mass spectral area corresponding to the carbon skeleton fragment of phenol by a selected ion monitoring mode of mass analysis of ions of phenol in the flow of helium gas. The measurement of the mass spectral area corresponding to the carbon skeleton fragment of the other two substances can be carried out by the same method. The method was tested on the samples of phenol, formaldehyde and triazine. The results of mass spectral analyses of the samples of these three substances obtained by application of the proposed method and conventional methods are given.
The essential problem of the mass incarceration debate is its legalism. Its advocates rely on an appeal to the structure and mechanics of the American criminal justice system to relieve them of any moral duty to address the larger social and economic structures that bear heavily on their fate. The remedy is a new system, they argue, not a new understanding of the injustice that lies at the root of their predicament. 827ec27edc