In 2003, shots were fired at Los Angeles Police Department patrol officers in two incidents in the Nickerson Gardens projects. In 2000, the FBI convicted 30 Bounty Hunter Watts Bloods members on federal drug violations for the distribution and conspiracy to distribute crack cocaine. An injunction was imposed on the gang in 2004 which limited the movements of members.
Ancient Greece was one of the earliest known centers of wine production. Winemakers established vineyards as early as 2000 B.C.5 Alcohol played a pivotal role in early Greek religious culture and was often used as an offering to the gods. It was also used as currency throughout the Mediterranean region.
Crack cocaine is a highly addictive drug. To learn more about crack addiction, long-term crack smokers who had never met the DSM-IV criteria for lifetime cocaine dependence were compared with those who had. The study sample consisted of crack users (n=172) from the Dayton, Ohio, area who were interviewed periodically over 8 years. Data were collected on a range of variables including age of crack initiation, frequency of recent use, and lifetime cocaine dependence. Cocaine dependence was common with 62.8% of the sample having experienced it. There were no statistically significant differences between dependent and non-dependent users for age of crack initiation or frequency of crack use. In terms of sociodemographics, only race/ethnicity was significant, with proportionally fewer African-Americans than whites meeting the criteria for cocaine dependence. Controlling for sociodemographics, partial correlation analysis showed positive, statistically significant relationships between lifetime cocaine dependence and anti-social personality disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and lifetime dependence on alcohol, cannabis, amphetamine, sedative-hypnotics, and opioids. These results highlight the importance addressing race/ethnicity and comorbid disorders when developing, implementing, and evaluating interventions targeting people who use crack cocaine. Additional research is needed to better understand the role of race/ethnicity in the development of cocaine dependence resulting from crack use.
Cocaine use disorder remains a significant public health issue for which there are no FDA-approved pharmacotherapies. Amphetamine maintenance reduces cocaine use in preclinical and clinical studies, but the mechanism of this effect is unknown. Previous studies indicate a role for endogenous opioid release and subsequent opioid receptor activation in some amphetamine effects; therefore, the current study examined the role of mu-opioid receptor activation in d-amphetamine treatment effects in an assay of cocaine-vs-food choice. Adult male rhesus monkeys with double-lumen intravenous catheters responded for concurrently available food pellets and cocaine injections (0-0.1mg/kg/injection) during daily sessions. Cocaine choice and overall reinforcement rates were evaluated during 7-day treatments with saline or test drugs. During saline treatment, cocaine maintained a dose-dependent increase in cocaine-vs.-food choice. The mu-opioid receptor agonist morphine (0.032-0.32mg/kg/h) dose-dependently increased cocaine choice and decreased rates of reinforcement. A dose of the mu-selective opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone (0.0032mg/kg/h) that completely blocked morphine effects had no effect on cocaine choice when it was administered alone, but it enhanced the effectiveness of a threshold dose of 0.032mg/kg/h amphetamine to decrease cocaine choice without also enhancing nonselective behavioral disruption by this dose of amphetamine. Conversely, the kappa-selective opioid antagonist norbinalorphimine did not enhance amphetamine effects on cocaine choice. These results suggest that amphetamine maintenance produces mu opioid-receptor mediated effects that oppose its anti-cocaine effects. Co-administration of naltrexone may selectively enhance amphetamine potency to decrease cocaine choice without increasing amphetamine potency to produce general behavioral disruption. Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... That People Abuse » Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Listen Cocaine is a white ... 69 KB) \"My life was built around getting cocaine and getting high.\" istock.com/ Marjot Stacey is ...
OBJECTIVES: This study deter- mined human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence and factors associated with HIV infection among street-recruited injection drug users and crack cocaine smokers. METHODS: An analysis was performed on HIV serologies and risk behaviors of 6402 injection drug users and 3383 crack smokers in 16 US municipalities in 1992 and 1993. RESULTS: HIV seroprevalence was 12.7% among injection drug users and 7.5% among crack smokers. Most high-seroprevalence municipalities (>25%) were located along the eastern seaboard of the United States. In high-seroprevalence municipalities, but not in others, HIV seroprevalence was higher for injection drug users than for crack smokers. Among injection drug users, cocaine injection, use of speedballs (cocaine or amphetamines with heroin), and sexual risk behaviors were independently associated with HIV infection. Among crack smokers, sexual risk behaviors were associated with HIV infection. CONCLUSIONS: Injection drug users and crack smokers are at high risk for HIV infection. PMID:9584014
Clinical trial data suggest amphetamine treatment is most efficacious in moderate to high frequency cocaine users. However, preclinical studies have examined amphetamine treatment effects under relatively limited cocaine access conditions with low to moderate cocaine intakes. This study determined d-amphetamine treatment effects on cocaine self-administration in rhesus monkeys under cocaine access conditions allowing for high daily cocaine intake. For comparison and as a negative control, treatment effects with the antipsychotic risperidone were also examined. Continuous 21-day treatments with ramping doses of d-amphetamine (days 1-7: 0.032mg/kg/h; days 8-21: 0.1mg/kg/h, i.v.) or risperidone (days 1-7: 0.001mg/kg/h; days 8-14: 0.0032mg/kg/h; days 15-21: 0.0056mg/kg/h, i.v.) were administered to rhesus monkeys (n=4) with daily access to two types of cocaine self-administration sessions: (1) a 2-h 'choice' session with concurrent availability of 1-g food pellets and intravenous cocaine injections (0-0.1mg/kg per injection) and (2) a 20-h 'extended-access' session with 0.1mg/kg per injection cocaine availability. Total daily cocaine intake increased >6-fold during extended cocaine access. d-Amphetamine significantly decreased total cocaine intake, but not cocaine vs food choice. In contrast, risperidone did not significantly alter either total cocaine intake or cocaine vs. food choice. These results confirm and extend previous results supporting treatment effectiveness for monoamine releasers, but not dopamine antagonists, to reduce cocaine self-administration. Moreover, these results suggest amphetamine treatment efficacy to decrease preclinical cocaine vs. food choice may depend upon cocaine access conditions. Copyright 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
... involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP 40.137 Section 40.137 Transportation Office of the... results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP (a) As the MRO, you must verify a confirmed positive test result for marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, and/or PCP unless the employee presents a...
15: Figure 16: Figure 17: Figure 18: LIST OF FIGURES Chemical structure of cocaine Chemical structure of amphetamine Cocaine groups! Average...prevent hypotension (Hoffman, 1987). The chemical structure of amphetamine is shown in figure 2. General Aspects: The term amphetamine applies to a group...cormnunication, 1991). 26 Germany in the 1930’s, with c hemical structures resembling those of epinephrine and NE. Their effects are similar to those of
We have adapted a nonhuman primate model of cocaine versus food choice to the rat species. To evaluate the procedure, we tested cocaine versus food choice under a variety of environmental manipulations as well as pharmacological pretreatments. Complete cocaine-choice dose-effect curves (0-1.0 mg/kg/infusion) were obtained for each condition under concurrent fixed ratio schedules of reinforcement. Percentage of responding emitted on the cocaine-reinforced lever was not affected significantly by removal of cocaine-associated visual or auditory cues, but it was decreased after removal of response-contingent or response-independent cocaine infusions. Cocaine choice was sensitive to the magnitude and fixed ratio requirement of both the cocaine and food reinforcers. We also tested the effects of acute (0.32, 0.56, 1.0, 1.8 mg/kg) and chronic (0.1, 0.32 mg/kg/hr) d-amphetamine treatment on cocaine choice. Acute and chronic d-amphetamine had opposite effects, with acute increasing and chronic decreasing cocaine choice, similar to observations in humans and in nonhuman primates. The results suggest feasibility and utility of the choice procedure in rats and support its comparability to similar procedures used in humans and monkeys. Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. 153554b96e